War on Terrorism

The lieutenant général de police had under his authority 44 commissaires de police ("police commissioners"), who were later assisted by some inspecteurs de police ("police inspectors") created in 1709. The city of Paris was divided into 16 districts policed by the 44 commissaires de police, each assigned to a particular district and assisted in their districts by clerks and a growing bureaucracy. The scheme of the Paris police force was extended to the rest of France by a royal edict of October 1699, result

The concept of police in the modern sense was developed by French legal scholars and practitioners in the 17th century and early 18th century, with notably Nicolas de La Mare's authoritative Traité de la Police ("Treatise of the Police") published between 1705 and 1738. As a result of this development of jurisprudence, the first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of King Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city of Europe and considered the most dangero








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Police forces are government organizations charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order (law enforcement), and protecting the general public from harm. The word comes from French police, itself from Latin politia ("civil administration"), itself from Ancient Greek , referring to government or administration, from Greek  (polis) = "city". The word police was first recorded in the French language in 1250 (in the sense of "administration, political organisation"), but it acquired i

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Home | By Police Department | By Police Officer | By Police Subjects | Law Enforcement Books by State | Other Law Enforcement Writers | Watering Hole | Poetry, Prayers & Articles | Police Leadership | Police Officer Gifts | Police Training | FAQs | Resource Directory | Contact Us | Site Map

March 18, 2007: 414 state and local Police Officers, 181 police departments and their 887 books
in six categories

This website is an out-growth of Authors of the Los Angeles Police Department.  When we started working on the former project we realized that many state and local police officers shared their talent, experience and knowledge through books.  And, what some amazing stories they have shared!
We (several police officers turned authors) kicked around the idea - but we had to have rules.  Being long-time slaves to bureaucracy we developed rules for inclusion:
The author made probation.  At a minimum this is the official bureaucratic measure of being a police officer.
You authored something.  We decided that since the 21st Century is here we would include - police officer blogs, police officer websites and police officer magazine articles.  Quite frankly, we found that many police officers have launched interesting post career businesses.  However, we are only going to list book authors by name and devote a webpage(s) to them and their work.  Blogs, Websites and Articles are listed as a category.
No charge for inclusion and no one gets turned away.  Frankly, we don't always like what our peers have written.  Unless its obviously pornographic (we hope not), advocates the over-throw of the government; or, the return of liesure suits - its included.

If you would like to be included or have a recommendation email the editor here.

What follows is an alphabetical listing of the police officers listed on this site who have authored books.  You can access the authors individual pages here.

Roger Abel, New York Police Department

Richard Abshire, Dallas Police Department

Steve Albrecht, San Diego Police Department

Robert Almonte, El Paso Police Department

Angela Amato, New York Police Department

John Anderson, California Highway Patrol

Nelson Andreu, Miami Police Department

Tom Avery, Orange County Sheriff's Department

Massad F. Ayoob, Grantham Police Department

Patrick Babby, Wilmington Police Department

Barry M. Baker, Baltimore Police Department

Dennis Banahan, Chicago Police Department

Dallas Barnes, Los Angeles Police Department

Frank Barchiesi, New York Police Department

Johnny Barnes, Rochester Police Department

Tom Basinski, Chula Vista Police Department

Harold Bastrup, Anaheim Police Department

Will Beall, Los Angeles Police Department

Charles Beene, San Francisco Police Department

Brian S. Bentley, Los Angeles Police Department

Keith Bettinger, Suffolk County Police Department

Wayne Beyea, New York State Police

Hugh Binyon, Los Angeles Police Department

Paul Bishop, Los Angeles Police Department

Michael A. Black, Matteson Police Department

Frank Bolz, New York Police Department

Gary Lee Bordelon, Louisiana State Police

James O. Born, Florida Department of Law Enforcement

Frank Bose, New York Police Department

John Botte, New York Police Department

Joe "Bill" Bradley, Houston Police Department

Derwin J. Bradley, Orlando Police Department

Don Brewer, New Orleans Police Department

Pierce Brooks, Los Angeles Police Department

BJ Bourg, Lafourche Parish District Attorney’s Office

Anthony V. Bouza, Minneapolis Police Department

William Bratton, Los Angeles Police Department

John H. Briant, New York State Police

Homer F. Broome, Los Angeles Police Department

W.K. Brown, New York City Transit Police

Philip Bulone, New York Police Department

Robin Burcell, Lodi Police Department

Kathy Burke, New York Police Department

Alan Burton, Contra Costa County Sheriff's Office

Keith Bushey, San Bernardino County Sheriff

Joseph Buskey, Atlanta Police Department

Antonio Bustillo, Miami Police Department

John Butler, Sanibel Island Police Department

Daniel Byram, Mesa Police Department

Richard Calvert, Miami-Dade Police Department

William Camp, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department

Lou Campanozzi, Rochester Police Department

Anthony J. Carbo, Newark Police Department

Dale C. Carson, Miami-Dade Police Department

Vince Carter, Los Angeles Police Department

Frank Caruso, Irvine Police Department

Dave Case, Chicago Police Department

Victor Cass, Pasadena Police Department

William Caunitz, New York Police Department

William Cavenaugh, Laguna Beach Police Department

Robert Cea, New York Police Department

Chuck Chambers, Palmetto Police Department

John Cheek, Tucson Police Department

Loren W. Christensen, Portland Police Bureau

Marie Cirile, New York Police Department

William Clair, Dallas Police Department

Bill Clark, New York Police Department

Samuel Clark, Newark Police Department

Gerald Clemente, Metropolitan District Commissioner's Police Department

Thomas J. Cline, Chicago Police Department

Leo J. Coakley, New Jersey State Police

Joseph Coffey, New York Police Department

James Colbert, Jefferson Parish Sheriff's Office

Robert P. Como, Nassau County Police Department

Edward Conlon, New York Police Department

Edward F. Connolly, Boston Police Department

Gregory M. Cooper, Provo Police Department

Steve Copling, Plano Police Department

Michael Corbitt, Willow Springs Police Department

Will Cordes, DeKalb County Sheriff's Office

Michael Cordoni, New Orleans Police Department

Robert Cornuke, Costa Mesa Police Department

Sarah Cortez, Houston Police Department

Ralph Henry Cothran, Chattanooga Police Department

John M. Coyle,  Los Angeles Police Department

Michael A. Crane, Oakland Police Department

Anthony D’Augustine, Bergen County Prosecutor's Office

Eric Davis, Chicago Police Department

Joseph Davis, Orange County Sheriff's Department

Mark Davis, Chicago Police Department

Randal Davis, Orange County District Attorney's Office

Richard L. Davis, Brockton Police Department

Joe DeCicco, New York Police Department

Ed Dee, New York Police Department

John Delamer, New York Police Department

Stephen Del Corso, New York Police Department

John S. Dempsey, New York Police Department

Thomas Dempsey, San Francisco Police Department

O'Niel De Noux, Jefferson Parish Sheriffs Office

Frank DeSario, Boston Police Department

Arthur Deutsch, New York Police Department

Gary A. Dias, Honolulu Police Department

Samuel Di Guiseppe, New York Police Department

John Dillman, New Orleans Police Department

Richard Bo Dietl, New York Police Department

Charles Diggett, New York Police Department

Mike DiSanza, New York Police Department

Tom Docherty, Houston Police Department

Ernie Dorling, Hollywood Police Department

Jim Dougherty, Los Angeles Police Department

Robert Downey, Beverly Hills Police Department

Doug W. Driver, Owasso Police Department

Edward F. Droge, New York Police Department

Doug Drummond, Long Beach Police Department

Laurie Drummond, Baton Rouge Police Department

Steven Dubinsky, New York Police Department

Dale W. Duke, Bakersfield Police Department

William Dunn, Los Angeles Police Department

David Durk, New York Police Department

Andrew K. Dutch, New Jersey State Police

Michael Dye, Volusia County Sheriffs Department

Michael East, Saginaw Police Department

Lou Eppolito, New York Police Department

Bill Erwin, New York Police Department

Dennis Evers, Snowflake - Taylor Police Department

David Faulkner, Fontana Police Department

Rosanna Filippello, Philadelphia Police Department

Russell Flores, Sacramento County Sheriff's Department

Richard Foschino, Anderson County Sheriff's Department

Phil Foran, New York Police Department

Dale Ford, Midwest City Police Department

Wayne Ford, Oakland Police Department

Linda Forst, Boca Raton Police Department

Raymond E. Foster, Los Angeles Police Department

William Fox, New York Police Department

Remo Franceschini, New York Police Department

Marshall Frank, Metro-Dade Police Department

Lynn Franklin, Beverly Hills Police Department

Winona M. Franz, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department

Volitta Fritsche, Morgan County Sheriff's Department

Lou Fugaro, Downers Grove Police Department

Mark Fuhrman, Los Angeles Police Department

Roger Fulton, New York State Police

Gina Gallo, Chicago Police Department

Steve Gaenzle, El Paso County Sheriff's Office

Michael Gajewski, Jersey City Police Department

Randy Garcia, Humboldt County Sheriff's Department

Christopher Garraty, Brigantine Police Department

Daryl F. Gates, Los Angeles Police Department

Jim Geeting, Wyoming Highway Patrol

Vernon J. Geberth, New York Police Department

William I. Getz, Chicago Police Department

Edward Anthony Gibbons, Boston Police Department

Mary Glatzle, New York Police Department

Michael Grant, New York Police Department

Mitchell Grobeson, Los Angeles Police Department

Lawrence Green, New Orleans Police Department

Dave Greenberg, New York Police Department

James L. Greenstone, Fort Worth Police Department

Dale Griffis, Tiffin Police Department

Sonny Grosso, New York Police Department

Bill Hamner, Dallas Police Department

Penny Harrington, Portland Oregon Police Department

Donald Harstad, Clayton County Sheriff's Department

Adolph Hart, New York Police Department

Andrew J. Harvey, Covina Police Department

Charles D. Hayes, Dallas Police Department

Gayleen Hayes, Los Angeles Police Department

Bill Heard, Los Angeles Police Department

David Heaukulani, Honolulu Police Department

Vincent E. Henry, New York Police Department

Donald Herlihy, New York Police Department

G.J. Herrey, Lee County Sheriff's Office

Ron Hickman, Harris County Constables Office

William Higgins, New York Police Department

Steve Hodel, Los Angeles Police Department

Joseph C. Hoffman, New York Police Department

John Hogan, New Jersey State Police

Randy Holcomb, Chicago Police Department

Michael Holmes, Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police Department

Hugh Holton, Chicago Police Department

George Homa, New Jersey State Police

Barry Horney, New York Transit Police Department

Robert Houghton, Los Angeles Police Department

Don Howell, Huntington Beach Police Department

Bill Hubbard, Lubbock Police Department

Richard Neal Huffman, Bangor Police Department

James Huggins, Huntsville Police Department

Dillard H. Hughes, Gwinnett County Sheriff's Department

Shawn Hughes, Knox County Sheriff's Office

James Hurley, Jefferson Parish Sheriff's Office

Marvin Iannone, Beverly Hills Police Department

Donovan Jacobs, San Diego Police Department

William Jacobsen, New York Police Department

Michael Jaquish, Okanogan Police Department

David Jebb, San Diego Police Department

Samuel Jeppsen, Mesa Police Department

Larry Jetmore, Hartford Police Department

David Jones, Los Angeles Police Department

Gary Jones, Fort Lauderdale Police Department

Juan Antonio Juarez, Chicago Police Department

Randy Jurgensen, New York Police Department

Tony M. Kail, Madison County Sheriff's Department

Joseph Kaiser, Suffolk County Police Department

Bernard B. Kerik, New York Police Department

Peter Keenan, New York Police Department

Thomas J. Keevers, Chicago Police Department

Bill Kelly, New York Police Department

Gerald Kelly, New York Police Department

Jack Kelly, Atlantic City Police Department

Jess Kimbrough, Los Angeles Police Department

Michael R. King, Ogden Police Department

Kevin B. Kinnee, Indianapolis Police Department

Robert Kirby, Springville Police Department

William Klasne, Chicago Police Department

Chuck Klein, Woodlawn Police Department

Herbert Klein, New York Police Department

David A. Klinger, Redmond Police Department

Lee Kohn, Mobile Police Department

Stacey Koons, Los Angeles Police Department

Joseph Kozenczak, Des Plaines Police Department

Karl Kretser, East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff's Office

William A. Krueger, Salem Police Department

Thomas Krupowicz, Chicago Police Department

Albert Kurek, New York State Police

Kevin LaChapelle, El Cajon Police Department

Kevin Lackey, Wichita Police Department

Peter E. Laksbergs, San Antonio Police Department

John Lamb, Oceanside Police Department

Tom Lange, Los Angeles Police Department

Dave Lauck, Campbell Country Sheriff's Office

Robert Leuci, New York Police Department

Jon Lewis, Newport Beach Police Department

Kenneth R. Lewis, Rogue River Police Department

Richard Lewis, New York Police Department

Frank Lione, New York Police Department

William Lippert, Salinas Police Department

Harold K. Lloyd, Philadelphia Police Department

Gary C. Lovett, Atlanta Police Department

Michael D. Lyman, Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs

Don Lucier, Los Angeles Police Department

John Mackie, New York Police Department

Gene Maloney, New York Police Department

John Manca, New York Police Department

Michael F. Mangiaracina, Yolo County Sheriff Coroner

Nick Mangieri, Palmer Police Department

James Manning, New York Police Department

Terry J. Manwaring, Jefferson County Sheriff's Office

Jack Maple, New York Police Department

Dan Mahoney, New York Police Department

Bobby R. Marshall, Los Angeles Police Department

Randy Martin, Chicago Police Department

Raymond V. Martin, New York Police Department

Robert Martin, Lower Township Police Department

Barry Mason, Cobb County Police Department

Dexter H. Mast, Oakland Police Department

Adam Matkowsky, Los Angeles Police Department

D. Clayton Mayes, Downey Police Department

William McCarthy, New York Police Department

Alex J. McDonald, Broward County Sheriff's Office

Cherokee Paul McDonald, Fort Lauderdale Police Department

Steven McDonald, New York Police Department

Michael McGarrity, Santa Fe County Sheriff's Department

Dennis J. McGowan, Suffern Police Department

Thomas McKenna, New York Police Department

Isaiah McKinnon, Detroit Police Department

Robert McLaughlin, New York Police Department

Larry McMicking, New York State Police

Joseph D. McNamara, San Jose Police Department

Ryan Melsky, Clinton Township Police Department

Tony Miano, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department

Rick Michelson, Grossmont – Cuyamaca Community College District Police Department

Michael Middleton, Los Angeles Police Department

Jerry Minton, Los Angeles Police Department

Robert Mladinich, New York Police Department

Charles Moose, Montgomery County Police Department

David W. Moran, Massachusetts State Police Department

O.J. Moravek, Newark Police Department

John Moreno, New York Police Department

Tony Moreno, Los Angeles Police Department

Bob Morrissey, Toledo Police Department

Frederick Morton, New Orleans Police Department

Ralph Mroz, Leverett Police Department

Jack Mullen, San Diego Police Department

Jack Muller, Chicago Police Department

Vincent Murano, New York Police Department

Larry Murphy, Oakland Police Department

Patrick V. Murphy, New York Police Department

Mark Mynheir, Palm Bay Police Department

Richard Nable, Fulton County Police Department

Ernest Naspretto, New York Police Department

Anthony Naturale, Montclair Police Department

Nick Navarro, Broward County Sheriff's Office

Trebor Nehoc, New York City Transit Police

Curt Nelson, San Francisco Police Department

Jonathan Nerlinger, Huntington Park Police Department

Thomas J. Nichols, Lubbock Police Department

William A. Nikkel, Kern County Sheriff's Department

Gary Nitchman, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department

Edward Nowicki, Chicago Police Department

Llyod O'Callaghan, Los Angeles Police Department

James O'Keefe, New York Police Department

John O'Grady, Los Angeles Police Department

William J. O'Shea, Chicago Police Department

Fred Otash, Los Angeles Police Department

Tom Owens, Los Angeles Police Department

Richard Paloma, Stockton Unified School District Police

Derrick Parker, New York Police Department

Don Parker, Escambia Sheriff's Office

William H. Parker, Los Angeles Police Department

Paul Patti, Lake Worth Police Department

Stephen Peach, San Bernardino Police Department

Cecil Pearson, Washoe County Sheriff's Office

Brian D. Perry, Sr., New Orleans Police Department

Quintin Peterson, Metropolitan Police Department, Washington DC

Joseph L. Phillips, New York Police Department

Richard Picciotto, New York Police Department

Patrick Picciarelli, New York Police Department

Arnold M. Pine, New York Police Department

Rick Porrello, Lyndhurst Police Department

Joe Poss, New York Police Department

Dennis Potter, Jefferson County Sheriff's Office

James S. Prine, New Orleans Police Department

Chester Pritchett, Tangipahoa Parish Sheriff's Office

Joanna Purl, Houston Police Department

Michael Quinn, Minneapolis Police Department

Gene Radano, New York Police Department

Eric Radli, Washoe County Sheriff's Office

Paul Ragonese, New York Police Department

Thomas Reppetto, Chicago Police Department

David Reichert, King County Sheriff's Department

Steven H. Richardson, Jacksonville Sheriff's Office

Chap Riese, San Francisco Police Department

Craig Roberts, Tulsa Police Department

Terry Roger, Chicago Police Department

Robert Roots, Coral Gables Police Department

Steve C. Rose, Los Angeles Police Department

Richard Rosenthal, New York Police Department

Michael Rothmiller, Los Angeles Police Department

Paul Rubino, Jersey City Police Department

Mona Ruiz, Santa Ana Police Department

Michael Ruppert, Los Angeles Police Department

C.M. Russell, Chicago Police Department

David J. Rutter, Uniontown Police Department

Howard Safir, New York Police Department

Ralph Sarchie, New York Police Department

Charles W. Sasser, Tulsa Police Department

Lou Savelli, New York Police Department

Raymond Schaffer, Broome County Sheriff's Office

John Schembra, Pleasant Hill Police Department

Anthony Schiano, New York Police Department

Wade Schindler, Oberlin Police Department

Daniel Schrager, Chicago Police Department

Ronald M. Schunk, Dearborn County Sheriff Department

Albert Seedman, New York Police Department

John Sepe, New York City Housing Police

Dee Dee Serpas, Kenner Police Department

Charles Shafer, Chicago Police Department

Daniel J. Shanahan, Baltimore Police Department

Alan Sheppard, New York Police Department

Debra Shinder, Roanoke Police Department

Victor L. Short, San Francisco Police Department

Jim Silvania, Columbus Police Department

Donald R. Sloan, New London Police Department

Leon Smith, Los Angeles Police Department

Richard A. Smith, Durham Police Department

Robert L. Snow, Indianapolis Police Department

Richard Solita, Chicago Police Department

Jerry Speziale, Passaic County Sheriff’s Department

Steven Staggs, University of California Police Department, Riverside

Norm Stamper, Seattle Police Department

Sylvester Armand St. Cyr, New Orleans Police Department

Robert S. Stering, Waltham Police Department

Charles Stoker, Los Angeles Police Department

Rick Stone, Hollywood Police Department

Samuel E. Stone, Retired Sergeant, Washington State

Sanford Strong, San Diego Police Department

Paul Stuligross, Novi Police Department

Charles Stumph, Orange County Sheriff's Office

Randy Sutton, Las Vegas Police Metropolitan Department

Louis Telano, New York City Housing Police

Dave Toma, Newark Police Department

Victor Paez Torres, Santa Ana Police Department

Joe Tip Thomas, Chicago Police Department

Maureen Tracy, San Diego County Sheriff's Department

Ron Turco, Beaverton Police Department

Joseph Turner, New York Police Department

Dorothy Uhnak, New York City Transit Police

Al Valdez, Orange County District Attorney's Office

Phillip Vannatter, Los Angeles Police Department

Michael Varnado, Washington Parish Sheriff's Office

Robert L. Vernon, Los Angeles Police Department

John Violanti, New York State Police

August Vollmer, Berkeley Police Department

James Wagner, New York Police Department

T. Mike Walker, San Francisco Police Department

Tom Walker, New York Police Department

George W. Walling, New York Police Department

Joseph Wambaugh, Los Angeles Police Department

Thomas J. Ward, New York Police Department

Bob Weir, New York Police Department

John Westermann, Freeport Police Department

Bernard Whalen, New York Police Department

Robert Wheeler, Los Angeles Police Department

Leslie T. White, Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office

Ruben Benjamin Whittington, Los Angeles Police Department

Leo P. Whittlesey, New York Police Department

Alec Wilkinson, Wellfleet Police Department

Willie L. Williams, Los Angeles Police Department

Dennis Wise, Walton County Sheriff's Office

James Wong, Louisiana State Police

Kim Wozencraft, Tyler Police Department

George P. Wright, Santa Monica Police Department

Donna Wudyka, Detroit Police Department

Frank Zafiro, Spokane Police Department

Anthony Zeoli, New York Port Authority Police Department

David Ziskin, Seattle Police Department

What follows is listing of the police departments represented by the police officers who have written books.  You can access the police department pages here.

Anaheim Police Department

Anderson County Sheriff's Department

Atlanta Police Department

Atlantic City Police Department

Bakersfield Police Department

Baltimore Police Department

Bangor Police Department

Baton Rouge Police Department

Beaverton Police Department

Bergen County Prosecutor's Office

Berkeley Police Department

Beverly Hills Police Department

Boca Raton Police Department

Boston Police Department

Brigantine Police Department

Brockton Police Department

Broome County Sheriff's Office

Broward County Sheriff’s Office

California Highway Patrol

Campbell County Sheriff's Office

Chattanooga Police Department

Clayton County Sheriff's Department

Clinton Township Police Department

Cobb County Police Department

Columbus Police Department

Contra Costa County Sheriff’s Office

Coral Gables Police Department

Costa Mesa Police Department

Covina Police Department

Chicago Police Department

Chula Vista Police Department

Dallas Police Department

Dearborn County Sheriffs Department

DeKalb County Sheriff's Office

Des Plaines Police Department

Detroit Police Department

Downers Grove Police Department

Downey Police Department

Durham Police Department

East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff's Office

El Cajon Police Department

El Paso Police Department

El Paso County Sheriff's Office

Escambia Sheriff's Office

Florida Department of Law Enforcement

Fontana Police Department

Fort Lauderdale Police Department

Fort Worth Police Department

Freeport Police Department

Fulton County Police Department

Grantham Police Department

Grossmont – Cuyamaca Community College District Police Department

Gwinnett County Sheriff's Department

Harris County Constable's Office

Hartford Police Department

Hollywood Police Department

Honolulu Police Department

Houston Police Department

Humboldt County Sheriff's Department

Huntington Beach Police Department

Huntington Park Police Department

Huntsville Police Department

Indianapolis Police Department

Irvine Police Department

Jacksonville Sheriff's Office

Jefferson County Sheriff's Office

Jefferson Parish Sheriff's Office

Jersey City Police Department

Kennebec County Sheriff’s Office

Kenner Police Department

Kern County Sheriff's Department

King County Sheriff's Office

Knox County Sheriff's Office

Lafourche Parish District Attorney’s Office

Laguna Beach Police Department

Lake Worth Police Department

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department

Lee County Sheriff’s Office

Leverett Police Department

Lodi Police Department

Long Beach Police Department

Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office

Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department

Los Angeles Police Department

Louisiana State Police

Lower Township Police Department

Lubbock Police Department

Lyndhurst Police Department

Massachusetts State Police Department

Matteson Police Department

Mesa Police Department

Metro-Dade Police Department

Metropolitan District Commissioner's Police Department

Metropolitan Police Department, Washington DC

Miami Police Department

Miami-Dade Police Department

Midwest City Police Department

Minneapolis Police Department

Mobile Police Department

Montclair Police Department

Montgomery County Police Department

Morgan County Sheriff's Department

Nassau County Police Department

Newark Police Department

New Jersey State Police

New London Police Department

New Orleans Police Department

Newport Beach Police Department

New York City Housing Police

New York City Transit Police

New York Police Department

New York Port Authority Police Department

New York State Police

Novi Police Department

Oakland Police Department

Oberlin Police Department

Oceanside Police Department

Ogden Police Department

Okanogan Police Department

Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs

Orange County District Attorney's Office

Orange County Sheriff's Department

Orlando Police Department

Owasso Police Department

Palm Bay Police Department

Palmer Police Department

Palmetto Police Department

Pasadena Police Department

Passaic County Sheriff’s Department

Philadelphia Police Department

Plano Police Department

Pleasant Hill Police Department

Portland Oregon Police Bureau

Provo Police Department

Redmond Police Department

Rochester Police Department (MA)

Rochester Police Department (NY)

Rogue River Police Department

Snowflake-Taylor Police Department

Sacramento County Sheriff's Department

Saginaw Police Department

Salem Police Department

Salinas Police Department

San Antonio Police Department

San Bernardino County Sheriff

San Bernardino Police Department

San Diego County Sheriff’s Department

San Diego Police Department

San Francisco Police Department

San Jose Police Department

Sanibel Island Police Department

Santa Ana Police Department

Santa Fe Sheriff's Department

Santa Monica Police Department

Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police Department

Seattle Police Department

Spokane Police Department

Springville Police Department

Stockton Unified School District Police Department

Suffern Police Department

Suffolk County Police Department

Tangipahoa Parish Sheriff's Office

Tiffin Police Department

Toledo Police Department

Tucson Police Department

Tulsa Police Department

Tyler Police Department

Uniontown Police Department

University of California Police Department, Riverside

Volusia County Sheriffs Department

Waltham Police Department

Walton County Sheriff's Office

Washington Parish Sheriff's Office

Washoe County Sheriff's Office

Wellfleet Police Department

Wichita Police Department

Willow Springs Police Department

Wilmington Police Department

Woodlawn Police Department

Wyoming Highway Patrol

Yolo County Sheriff Coroner

Police and Detectives

Police Officers and Detectives/investigators

Important Points
  • Police and detective work can be dangerous and stressful.
  • Competition should remain keen for higher paying jobs with State and Federal agencies and police departments in affluent areas; opportunities will be better in local and special police departments that offer relatively low salaries or in urban communities where the crime rate is relatively high.
  • Applicants with college training in police science or military police experience should have the best opportunities.
Description of the Job    

People depend on police officers and detectives to protect their lives and property. Law enforcement officers, some of whom are State or Federal special agents or inspectors, perform these duties in a variety of ways, depending on the size and type of their organization. In most jurisdictions, they are expected to exercise authority when necessary, whether on or off duty.

Uniformed police officers have general law enforcement duties, including maintaining regular patrols and responding to calls for service. They may direct traffic at the scene of an accident, investigate a burglary, or give first aid to an accident victim. In large police departments, officers usually are assigned to a specific type of duty. Many urban police agencies are involved in community policinga practice in which an officer builds relationships with the citizens of local neighborhoods and mobilizes the public to help fight crime.

Police agencies are usually organized into geographic districts, with uniformed officers assigned to patrol a specific area, such as part of the business district or outlying residential neighborhoods. Officers may work alone, but, in large agencies, they often patrol with a partner. While on patrol, officers attempt to become thoroughly familiar with their patrol area and remain alert for anything unusual. Suspicious circumstances and hazards to public safety are investigated or noted, and officers are dispatched to individual calls for assistance within their district. During their shift, they may identify, pursue, and arrest suspected criminals; resolve problems within the community; and enforce traffic laws.

Public college and university police forces, public school district police, and agencies serving transportation systems and facilities are examples of special police agencies. These agencies have special geographic jurisdictions and enforcement responsibilities in the United States. Most sworn personnel in special agencies are uniformed officers; a smaller number are investigators.

Some police officers specialize in such diverse fields as chemical and microscopic analysis, training and firearms instruction, or handwriting and fingerprint identification. Others work with special units, such as horseback, bicycle, motorcycle or harbor patrol; canine corps; special weapons and tactics (SWAT); or emergency response teams. A few local and special law enforcement officers primarily perform jail-related duties or work in courts. Regardless of job duties or location, police officers and detectives at all levels must write reports and maintain meticulous records that will be needed if they testify in court.

Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs enforce the law on the county level. Sheriffs are usually elected to their posts and perform duties similar to those of a local or county police chief. Sheriffs departments tend to be relatively small, most having fewer than 50 sworn officers. Deputy sheriffs have law enforcement duties similar to those of officers in urban police departments. Police and sheriffs deputies who provide security in city and county courts are sometimes called bailiffs. (For information on other officers who work in jails and prisons, see correctional officers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

State police officers (sometimes called State troopers or highway patrol officers) arrest criminals Statewide and patrol highways to enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations. State police officers are best known for issuing traffic citations to motorists. At the scene of accidents, they may direct traffic, give first aid, and call for emergency equipment. They also write reports used to determine the cause of the accident. State police officers are frequently called upon to render assistance to other law enforcement agencies, especially those in rural areas or small towns.

State law enforcement agencies operate in every State except Hawaii. Most full-time sworn personnel are uniformed officers who regularly patrol and respond to calls for service. Others work as investigators, perform court-related duties, or carry out administrative or other assignments.

Detectives are plainclothes investigators who gather facts and collect evidence for criminal cases. Some are assigned to interagency task forces to combat specific types of crime. They conduct interviews, examine records, observe the activities of suspects, and participate in raids or arrests. Detectives and State and Federal agents and inspectors usually specialize in investigating one of a wide variety of violations, such as homicide or fraud. They are assigned cases on a rotating basis and work on them until an arrest and conviction occurs or until the case is dropped.

Fish and game wardens enforce fishing, hunting, and boating laws. They patrol hunting and fishing areas, conduct search and rescue operations, investigate complaints and accidents, and aid in prosecuting court cases.

The Federal Government maintains a high profile in many areas of law enforcement. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents are the Governments principal investigators, responsible for investigating violations of more than 200 categories of Federal law and conducting sensitive national security investigations. Agents may conduct surveillance, monitor court-authorized wiretaps, examine business records, investigate white-collar crime, or participate in sensitive undercover assignments. The FBI investigates organized crime, public corruption, financial crime, fraud against the Government, bribery, copyright infringement, civil rights violations, bank robbery, extortion, kidnapping, air piracy, terrorism, espionage, interstate criminal activity, drug trafficking, and other violations of Federal statutes.

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents enforce laws and regulations relating to illegal drugs. Not only is the DEA the lead agency for domestic enforcement of Federal drug laws, it also has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing U.S. drug investigations abroad. Agents may conduct complex criminal investigations, carry out surveillance of criminals, and infiltrate illicit drug organizations using undercover techniques.

U.S. marshals and deputy marshals protect the Federal courts and ensure the effective operation of the judicial system. They provide protection for the Federal judiciary, transport Federal prisoners, protect Federal witnesses, and manage assets seized from criminal enterprises. They enjoy the widest jurisdiction of any Federal law enforcement agency and are involved to some degree in nearly all Federal law enforcement efforts. In addition, U.S. marshals pursue and arrest Federal fugitives.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives agents regulate and investigate violations of Federal firearms and explosives laws, as well as Federal alcohol and tobacco tax regulations.

The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Diplomatic Security special agents are engaged in the battle against terrorism. Overseas, they advise ambassadors on all security matters and manage a complex range of security programs designed to protect personnel, facilities, and information. In the United States, they investigate passport and visa fraud, conduct personnel security investigations, issue security clearances, and protect the Secretary of State and a number of foreign dignitaries. They also train foreign civilian police and administer a counter-terrorism reward program.

The Department of Homeland Security employs numerous law enforcement officers under several different agencies, including Customs and Border Protection, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and the U.S. Secret Service. U.S. Border Patrol agents protect more than 8,000 miles of international land and water boundaries. Their missions are to detect and prevent the smuggling and unlawful entry of undocumented foreign nationals into the United States; to apprehend those persons violating the immigration laws; and to interdict contraband, such as narcotics.

Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking entrance to the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter the United States. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States.

Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports by inspecting cargo, baggage, and articles worn or carried by people, vessels, vehicles, trains, and aircraft entering or leaving the United States. These inspectors examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States. Customs inspectors seize prohibited or smuggled articles; intercept contraband; and apprehend, search, detain, and arrest violators of U.S. laws. Customs agents investigate violations, such as narcotics smuggling, money laundering, child pornography, and customs fraud, and they enforce the Arms Export Control Act. During domestic and foreign investigations, they develop and use informants; conduct physical and electronic surveillance; and examine records from importers and exporters, banks, couriers, and manufacturers. They conduct interviews, serve on joint task forces with other agencies, and get and execute search warrants.

Federal Air Marshals provide air security by fighting attacks targeting U.S. airports, passengers, and crews. They disguise themselves as ordinary passengers and board flights of U.S. air carriers to locations worldwide.

U.S. Secret Service special agents protect the President, Vice President, and their immediate families; Presidential candidates; former Presidents; and foreign dignitaries visiting the United States. Secret Service agents also investigate counterfeiting, forgery of Government checks or bonds, and fraudulent use of credit cards.

Other Federal agencies employ police and special agents with sworn arrest powers and the authority to carry firearms. These agencies include the Postal Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Law Enforcement, the Forest Service, and the National Park Service.

Job Site Issues    

Police and detective work can be very dangerous and stressful. In addition to the obvious dangers of confrontations with criminals, police officers and detectives need to be constantly alert and ready to deal

appropriately with a number of other threatening situations. Many law enforcement officers witness death and suffering resulting from accidents and criminal behavior. A career in law enforcement may take a toll on their private lives.

Uniformed officers, detectives, agents, and inspectors are usually scheduled to work 40-hour weeks, but paid overtime is common. Shift work is necessary because protection must be provided around the clock. Junior officers frequently work weekends, holidays, and nights. Police officers and detectives are required to work at any time their services are needed and may work long hours during investigations. In most jurisdictions, whether on or off duty, officers are expected to be armed and to exercise their authority whenever necessary.

The jobs of some Federal agents such as U.S. Secret Service and DEA special agents require extensive travel, often on very short notice. They may relocate a number of times over the course of their careers. Some special agents in agencies such as the U.S. Border Patrol work outdoors in rugged terrain for long periods and in all kinds of weather.

Advancement, training and qualifications

Civil service regulations govern the appointment of police and detectives in most States, large municipalities, and special police agencies, as well as in many smaller jurisdictions. Candidates must be U.S. citizens, usually must be at least 20 years of age, and must meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. Physical examinations for entrance into law enforcement often include tests of vision, hearing, strength, and agility. Eligibility for appointment usually depends on performance in competitive written examinations and previous education and experience. In larger departments, where the majority of law enforcement jobs are found, applicants usually must have at least a high school education, and some departments require a year or two of college coursework. Federal and State agencies typically require a college degree. Candidates should enjoy working with people and meeting the public.

Because personal characteristics such as honesty, sound judgment, integrity, and a sense of responsibility are especially important in law enforcement, candidates are interviewed by senior officers, and their character traits and backgrounds are investigated. In some agencies, candidates are interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist or given a personality test. Most applicants are subjected to lie detector examinations or drug testing. Some agencies subject sworn personnel to random drug testing as a condition of continuing employment.

Before their first assignments, officers usually go through a period of training. In State and large local departments, recruits get training in their agencys police academy, often for 12 to 14 weeks. In small agencies, recruits often attend a regional or State academy. Training includes classroom instruction in constitutional law and civil rights, State laws and local ordinances, and accident investigation. Recruits also receive training and supervised experience in patrol, traffic control, use of firearms, self-defense, first aid, and emergency response. Police departments in some large cities hire high school graduates who are still in their teens as police cadets or trainees. They do clerical work and attend classes, usually for 1 to 2 years, at which point they reach the minimum age requirement and may be appointed to the regular force.

Police officers usually become eligible for promotion after a probationary period ranging from 6 months to 3 years. In a large department, promotion may enable an officer to become a detective or to specialize in one type of police work, such as working with juveniles. Promotions to corporal, sergeant, lieutenant, and captain usually are made according to a candidates position on a promotion list, as determined by scores on a written examination and on-the-job performance.

Most States require at least two years of college study to qualify as a fish and game warden. Applicants must pass written and physical examinations and vision, hearing, psychological, and drug tests similar to those taken by other law enforcement officers. Once hired, officers attend a training academy lasting from 3 to 12 months, sometimes followed by further training in the field.

To be considered for appointment as an FBI agent, an applicant must be a graduate of an accredited law school or a college graduate with one of the following: a major in accounting, electrical engineering, or information technology; fluency in a foreign language; or three years of related full-time work experience. All new agents undergo 18 weeks of training at the FBI Academy on the U.S. Marine Corps base in Quantico, Virginia.

Applicants for special agent jobs with the U.S. Secret Service and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms must have a bachelors degree, a minimum of three years related work experience, or a combination of education and experience. Prospective special agents undergo 11 weeks of initial criminal investigation training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia, and another 17 weeks of specialized training with their particular agencies.

Applicants for special agent jobs with the DEA must have a college degree with at least a 2.95 grade point average or specialized skills or work experience, such as foreign language fluency, technical skills, law enforcement experience, or accounting experience. DEA special agents undergo 14 weeks of specialized training at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia.

U.S. Border Patrol agents must be U.S. citizens, be younger than 37 years of age at the time of appointment, possess a valid drivers license, and pass a three-part examination on reasoning and language skills. A bachelors degree or previous work experience that demonstrates the ability to handle stressful situations, make decisions, and take charge is required for a position as a Border Patrol agent. Applicants may qualify through a combination of education and work experience.

Postal inspectors must have a bachelors degree and 1 year of related work experience. It is desirable that they have one of several professional certifications, such as that of certified public accountant. They also must pass a background investigation, meet certain health requirements, undergo a drug screening test, possess a valid State drivers license, and be a U.S. citizen between 21 and 36 years of age when hired.

Law enforcement agencies are encouraging applicants to take postsecondary school training in law enforcement-related subjects. Many entry-level applicants for police jobs have completed some formal postsecondary education, and a significant number are college graduates. Many junior colleges, colleges, and universities offer programs in law enforcement or administration of justice. Other courses helpful in preparing for a career in law enforcement include accounting, finance, electrical engineering, computer science, and foreign languages. Physical education and sports are helpful in developing the competitiveness, stamina, and agility needed for many law enforcement positions. Knowledge of a foreign language is an asset in many Federal agencies and urban departments.

Continuing training helps police officers, detectives, and special agents improve their job performance. Through police department academies, regional centers for public safety employees established by the States, and Federal agency training centers, instructors provide annual training in self-defense tactics, firearms, use-of-force policies, sensitivity and communications skills, crowd-control techniques, relevant legal developments, and advances in law enforcement equipment. Many agencies pay all or part of the tuition for officers to work toward degrees in criminal justice, police science, administration of justice, or public administration, and pay higher salaries to those who earn such a degree.

Current Employment Statistics    

Police and detectives held about 842,000 jobs in 2004. About 80 percent were employed by local governments. State police agencies employed about 12 percent, and various Federal agencies employed about 6 percent. A small proportion worked for educational services, rail transportation, and contract investigation and security services.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, police and detectives employed by local governments primarily worked in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Some cities have very large police forces, while thousands of small communities employ fewer than 25 officers each.

Job Prospects    

The opportunity for public service through law enforcement work is attractive to many because the job is challenging and involves much personal responsibility. Furthermore, law enforcement officers in many agencies may retire with a pension after 25 or 30 years of service, allowing them to pursue a second career while still in their 40s or 50s. Because of relatively attractive salaries and benefits, the number of qualified candidates exceeds the number of job openings in Federal law enforcement agencies and in most State police departmentsresulting in increased hiring standards and selectivity by employers. Competition should remain keen for higher paying jobs with State and Federal agencies and police departments in more affluent areas. Opportunities will be better in local and special police departments, especially in departments that offer relatively low salaries, or in urban communities where the crime rate is relatively high. Applicants with college training in police science, military police experience, or both should have the best opportunities.

Employment of police and detectives is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2014. A more security-conscious society and concern about drug-related crimes should contribute to the increasing demand for police services. However, employment growth will be hindered by reductions in Federal hiring grants to local police departments and by expectations of low crime rates by the general public.

The level of government spending determines the level of employment for police and detectives. The number of job opportunities, therefore, can vary from year to year and from place to place. Layoffs, on the other hand, are rare because retirements enable most staffing cuts to be handled through attrition. Trained law enforcement officers who lose their jobs because of budget cuts usually have little difficulty finding jobs with other agencies. The need to replace workers who retire, transfer to other occupations, or stop working for other reasons will be the source of many job openings.

Salaries and benefits    

Police and sheriffs patrol officers had median annual earnings of $45,210 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,410 and $56,360. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,910, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $68,880. Median annual earnings were $44,750 in Federal Government, $48,980 in State government, and $45,010 in local government.

In May 2004, median annual earnings of police and detective supervisors were $64,430. The middle 50 percent earned between $49,370 and $80,510. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,690, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $96,950. Median annual earnings were $86,030 in Federal Government, $62,300 in State government, and $63,590 in local government.

In May 2004, median annual earnings of detectives and criminal investigators were $53,990. The middle 50 percent earned between $40,690 and $72,280. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,180, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,010. Median annual earnings were $75,700 in Federal Government, $46,670 in State government, and $49,650 in local government.

Federal law provides special salary rates to Federal employees who serve in law enforcement. Additionally, Federal special agents and inspectors receive law enforcement availability pay (LEAP)equal to 25 percent of the agents grade and stepawarded because of the large amount of overtime that these agents are expected to work. For example, in 2005, FBI agents entered Federal service as GS-10 employees on the pay scale at a base salary of $42,548, yet they earned about $53,185 a year with availability pay. They could advance to the GS-13 grade level in field nonsupervisory assignments at a base salary of $64,478, which was worth $80,597 with availability pay. FBI supervisory, management, and executive positions in grades GS-14 and GS-15 paid a base salary of about $76,193 and $89,625 a year, respectively, which amounted to $95,241 or $112,031 per year including availability pay. Salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. Because Federal agents may be eligible for a special law enforcement benefits package, applicants should ask their recruiter for more information.

According to the International City-County Management Associations annual Police and Fire Personnel, Salaries, and Expenditures Survey, average salaries for sworn full-time positions in 2004 were as follows:

  Minimum annual base salary Maximum annual base salary
Police chief $72,924 $92,983
Deputy chief 61,110 76,994
Police captain 60,908 75,497
Police lieutenant 56,115 67,580
Police sergeant 49,895 59,454
Police corporal 41,793 51,661

Total earnings for local, State, and special police and detectives frequently exceed the stated salary because of payments for overtime, which can be significant. In addition to the common benefitspaid vacation, sick leave, and medical and life insurancemost police and sheriffs departments provide officers with special allowances for uniforms. Because police officers usually are covered by liberal pension plans, many retire at half-pay after 25 or 30 years of service.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition, Police and Detectives, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos160.htm (visited April 06, 2006).

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