About the New York Police Department
The first law-enforcement officer began
to patrol the trails and paths of New York City when it was known as New Amsterdam, and was a Dutch settlement and fort in
the year 1625. This lawman was known as a "Schout – fiscal" (sheriff – attorney) and was charged with keeping
the peace, settling minor disputes, and warning colonists if fires broke out at night. The first Schout was a man named Johann
The Rattle Watch was a group of colonists
during the Dutch era (1609 - 1664) who patrolled from sunset until dawn. They carried weapons, lanterns and wooden rattles
(that are similar to the ratchet noisemakers used during New Year celebrations). The rattles made a very loud, distinctive
sound and were used to warn farmers and colonists of threatening situations. Upon hearing this sound, the colonists would
rally to defend themselves or form bucket-brigades to put out fires. The rattles were used because whistles had not yet been
invented. The Rattle Watchmen also are believed to have carried lanterns that had green glass inserts. This was to help identify
them while they were on patrol at night (as there were no streetlights at that time). When they returned to their Watch House
from patrol, they hung their lantern on a hook by the front door to show that the Watchman was present in the Watch House.
Today, green lights are still hung outside the entrances of Police Precincts as a symbol that the "Watch" is present and vigilant.
When the High Constable of New York City,
Jacob Hays retired from service in 1844, permission was granted by the Governor of the state to the Mayor of the City to create
a Police Department. A force of approximately 800 men under the first Chief of Police, George W. Matsell, began to patrol
the City in July of 1845. They wore badges that had an eight-pointed star (representing the first 8 paid members of the old
Watch during Dutch times). The badges had the seal of the City in their center and were made of stamped copper.
Vincent E. Henry earned his Ph.D. in Criminal Justice from
the City University of New York (John Jay), and is associate professor and director of Long Island University's Homeland Security
Management Institute. He earned B.A. and M.S. degrees from Long Island University
(C.W. Post Campus) and an M.Phil. degree from the City University of New York. A
first responder to the 9/11 World Trade Center terrorist attack, Vincent retired from the New York Police Department in 2002
following a 21-year police career in which he served in a wide variety of uniformed and plainclothes patrol, undercover decoy,
training, investigative, supervisory and management assignments.
Vincent Henry is the author of numerous publications in the
fields of law enforcement management, police corruption and reform, psychological trauma, terrorism, and homeland security. His books include The COMPSTAT Paradigm: Management Accountability in Policing, Business and the Private Sector and Death Work: Police,
Trauma, and the Psychology of Survival.